(1) is correct. In grid square 0885, the symbol of clinic is found.
(2) is correct. In grid square 0885, the symbol of declared monument is found.
(3) is incorrect. In grid square 0885, the symbol of police station cannot be found.
Average gradient = vertical distance / horizontal distance
The vertical distance between two points= 490m-180m=310m
The horizontal distance of the section of footpath from the junction at 063831 to the secondary road at 068844 is 7.6cm * 20000/100=1520m
The average gradient from the section of footpath from the junction at 063831 to the secondary road at 068844 =310m/1520m »1:4.903 (1:4.9)
(1) is correct. The section of the footpath passes through a slope with spaced contour lines at the foot and it goes on getting closely packed towards the top between 063831 and 065835.
(2) is correct. The section of the footpath passes through a slope with spaced contour lines on the top and it goes on becoming spaced downhill between 065837 and 067839.
(3) is correct. The section of the footpath passes through a spur between 065835 to 065837.
(1) is correct. The trigonometrical station at Grassy Hill (082811) is intervisible with spot height 679(062818).
(2) is incorrect. Spot height 784 (052819) represents there is a high mountain which blocks the view between the spot height 679(062818) and spot height 729.
(3) is incorrect. The spot height 957(030811) nearby Tai Mo Shan represents there is a high mountain which blocks the view between them.
(1) is incorrect. There is no any pier surround the Tolo Harbour.
(2) is correct. Tolo Harbour can provide reclaimed land for the industry to further expand.
(3) is correct. Kwong Fuk Estate and Fu Shin Estate can provide labor force for industries.
(1) is correct. The trigonometrical station is located at the northwest of the country park management center.
(2) is incorrect. The reduced bearing from the country park management center to the temple in grid square 1083 is N 82° E.
(3) is correct. The whole circle bearing from it to the trigonometrical station at 105827 is 109°.
2. (a) The fluvial feature is meander.
(b) (i) Firstly, the contour lines at Lam Tsuen Valley are widely spaced which shows that the gradient of the river is gentle, increasing the risk of flooding. Besides, a meandering river course can be found in grid square 0585 and 0586. Thus, the speed of river flow is low, floodwater cannot be drained away in time. Then, the tributaries from Tai Mo Shan to Tai To Yan join the main stream at 047850 which is the point of junction. With a large catchment area, the discharge of river channel may increase sharply at times of heavy rainfall leading to the occurrence of flooding. However, there are a lot of settlements and farmland along Lam Tsuen River, the occurrence of flooding will damage the property and threaten lives. As a result, there is a need to manage the river channel at site P.
(ii) The river management strategy adopted at site P are straightening of river channel and gabions.
The velocity of river flow can be increased through straightening of river channel. The friction formed between river channel and the river course can be reduced. Thus, the process of silting is reduced and increases water holding capacity. The risk of flooding may decrease with larger water holding capacity and prevent the water to overflow easily. Besides, the application of gabions can protect river bank from erosion and thus reduce the load carried by the river channel and sediment being deposited on the river bed. Therefore, the silting can be further decreased.
(iii) The river management strategy adopted at site Q is channelization which is a method of widening, deepening and straightening rivers to increase the water holding capacity.
In the aspect of physical setting, the risk of flooding for site P is higher than that of site Q. Since the meandering river course of site P leads to low velocity of river flow and large catchment area at site P result in higher discharge of river channel, frequent occurrence of flooding may occur at times of heavy rainfall. Besides, the ecological value of site P is higher than that of site Q. As a large area of grassland and agricultural land use which provide diversify habitats for wildlife animals to survive can be found. The occurrence of flooding may destroy the natural habitat and the ecosystem at site P. However, the ecological value in site Q is lower.
In the aspect of human setting, the development density of site P is lower and fewer settlements are found. Besides, the major land use along river are agricultural land use which contains less economic value. However, site Q located in New Town, various urban land uses such as transportation land use, institutional land use and residential land use. Thus, population density and economic value are larger, huge losses are caused by flooding.
In the aspect of natural setting, natural landscape of site P will be destroyed by the channelization of river channel. Besides, the river banks and river bed covered by cement may harm the natural habitat for wildlife。
Last but not least, channelization as a hard strategy, the building cost and maintenance cost are expensive. Thus, it will be more cost effective if the strategy adopts at the site that with higher economic value and high population density.